Some of the earliest work concerning amphibian malformations arose from the U.S. Geological Survey’s “North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations” (NARCAM; Johnson et al. 2000). NARCAM was established in June 1997 following several months of discussions among federal and state agency staff, herpetologists, and other scientists, with the goal of facilitating the flow of information in two directions. First, scientists and the public could learn about the amphibian malformation phenomenon, including where occurrences had been found, the rates at which they were recorded, the species involved, and the types of malformations noted. Second, suspected or confirmed observations could be reported to NARCAM’s centralized database so that scientists could search for emerging patterns and trends in the type and incidence of malformations. Due to federal budget cuts, the NARCAM program was discontinued in 2002. See the “U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service” and “University of Colorado Boulder” sections to see how the NARCAM monitoring and reporting efforts paved the way for ongoing research projects.